ThePrevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB) is established under The Prevention and Combating of Corruption Act No. 11 of 2007 (PCCA No. 11/2007). This Act came about after the repeal of ThePrevention of Corruption Act (PCA) Cap 329 (RE 2002). This was after the Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania passed The Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bill of 2007 on April 16, 2007. His Excellency President of the United Republic of Tanzania Jakaya Kikwete assent the bill on June 11, 2007 to make it an Act of parliament which came into force on July 1, 2007.
The PCCA No. 11/2007 was made to provide promotion and enhancement of good governance and eradication of corruption.
Historically, the legal frame work to combat corruption commenced during the colonial era under the British administration. The PCO was used by the British colonial government as from 1930’s to punish corruption offenders. Subsequently in 1958 the PCO was repealed by the prevention of corruption ordinance PCO Cap 400 in 1958.
In 1974, the PCA was amended by Act No. 2 of 1974, which provided for the establishment of The Anti-Corruption Squad (ACS). The government under President, the late Julius Nyerere established the Anti-Corruption Squad (ACS) on the 15th January 1975 by Government Notice No. 17 of 1975. With its establishment, the ACS took over the anti-corruption function that was hitherto carried out by the Police Force.
In 1991, as a result of economic liberalisation and political pluralism that loomed in Tanzania in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the PCA was further amended to match these changes. This saw to the establishment of The Prevention of Corruption Bureau (PCB) which took over the functions of the ACS.
In essence, the PCA Cap 329 (RE 2002) had certain shortcomings that infringed the Bureau’s operations. These, to mention a few, included:
- It was silent on how the PCB was to execute its functions of graft prevention.
- It did give the PCB legal mandate or opportunity to follow up and or prosecute corruption related to fraud.
- It did not criminalize most corruption offences such as trading in influence, possession of wealth whose legality cannot be explained
- It was silent on sexual corruption that has been on the increase.
The PCCB is headed by the Director General (DG) and who is appointment by President. The Director General (DG) is assisted by the Deputy Director General (DDG). Hereunder is a chronology of the PCCB Directors General as from 1973 to date:
- 1973-1974: Mr. Geofrey Sawaya
- 1974-1975: Mr. S. Rutayangirwa
- 1975-1990: Mr. Zakaria Maftah
- 1990-2006: Major General (Rtd), Anatory Ruta Kamazima
- 2006-todate: Dr. Edward Gamaya Hoseah